The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defines Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as: "Any area of intertidal or sub-tidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment," (Kelleher, 1999). As such It is also important to have the support of the public and established techniques for surveillance and monitoring of compliance.
TERRESTRIAL PROTECTED AREAS
Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use. Marine areas, unclassified areas, littoral (intertidal) areas, and sites protected under local or provincial law are excluded.
Protected Areas (PA) in Grenada
Records show that 85% of the terrestrial land in Grenada is privately owned rather than owned by a small dominant set of land barons or by Government.
This means that much less than 15% of the terrestrial lands are expected to be under the direct ‘command and control’ of Government for programmatic management.
Marine Protected Areas
Fusce porttitor, nulla luctus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus.
Terrestrial Protected Areas
Donec odio condimentum nunc. Phasellus lacinia id, ullamcorper risus.
MARINE PROTECTED AREAS
The IUCN engages in advocating for the expansion of the MPA network through reliable science and by engaging with local stakeholders The IUCN highlighted that an effective MPA system is needed to ensure that the oceans recuperate, continue to store carbon dioxide, that fish stocks recover and that coastlines are protected from harsh climatic conditions. It is no longer a technical question but a matter of survival for the planet and humankind.
TERRESTRIAL PROTECTED AREAS
The Government of Grenada has committed to a national target of PA coverage of 25% of nearshore and 25% of terrestrial territory by the year 2020 as part of the Caribbean Challenge. To date, 10 terrestrial protected areas have been established in Grenada that together protect high elevation forest environments, critical habitat for the endangered Grenada dove, and Amerindian cultural resources; these existing PA sites account for approximately 6% of the terrestrial environment of Grenada. In addition, a number of other PA sites are in various stages of planning/approval. In the coastal/marine environment, 3 MPAs have been legally established in Grenada, encompassing approximately 4% of nearshore coastal resources (defined as territorial waters out to 12 miles) and protecting coral reefs, mangroves, beaches and recreation and tourism areas.